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以博会友,以友辅仁

My experience in CHINA and in U.S.A.

 
 
 

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黄石瀑布  

2014-09-05 15:15:45|  分类: 黄石公园 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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在黄石的第三天,我们出发去看黄石瀑布。晴空万里,很难想象前一天下午曾经大雪纷飞,能见度只有一辆车的距离,我已经建议“我们回去吧”。女儿司机没采纳我的建议,坚持了一下,很快雪就小了,我们还看见了好几次熊。

黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

 Waterfall Makers

Here the Yellowstone River plunges 308 feet over the Lower Falls. Hot springs have weakend the rock just downstream, where you might see several geysers spouting into the river. As falling water pounds the thermally softened rock, it continues to undercut the falls and deepen the gorge.

In this geologically active landscape, the park's riverbeds drop abruptly in more than a hundred locations. A half-mile upstream, the Upper Falls formed at a junction of a lava flow and glacial lake sediments—— one dense and hard, the other brittle and easily eroded.

译文:

瀑布“制造商”——黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁
下瀑布这里的黄石河跌落308英尺。温泉持续腐蚀瀑布下游的岩石,在下游能看到好几个喷泉涌入黄石河。由于落水连续重击热软化了的岩石,瀑布持续下切,峡谷持续深化。
处在这种地质活跃的地形里,公园里的河床有一百多处突然下降。上游半英里处,上瀑布形成在熔岩流和冰川湖沉积物的交界处——一个致密坚硬,另一个易碎和易受侵蚀。

黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

我们没去看上瀑布,能看见一个瀑布我已经喜出望外了。我们也没下到谷底走到黄石河边,我们看见的小路是这个样子的。

黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

 

 A small geyser vent beside the Yellowstone River (黄石河边一个小间歇泉喷口)
黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

 Still Venting

After All These Years

The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River slices through an ancient hydrothermal basin. The basin developed in rhyolitic lava and ash that flowed into the Yellowstone Caldera about 500,000 years ago. The river carved this spectacular canyon through the hardened lava (rhyolitic rock) and welded ash (tuff). Hot areas and steam vents still exist in the canyon. They allow heat, gases, and hot water to escape from the underground Yellowstone Volcano.

译文:

这么多年以来,排气依旧
黄石河大峡谷切削穿过一个古热水盆地。这个盆地形成在50万年前排放进黄石破火山口的流纹熔岩和火山灰中。河流雕琢出的壮观峡谷穿透硬化的熔岩(流纹岩)和密实的火山灰(凝灰岩)。峡谷中仍然有地热区域和蒸汽喷口。它们使热,气体,和热水从地下的黄石火山逸出。

黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

A Youthful Glow

The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River was born thousands of years ago, but is still young in geologic time.

After Yellowstone's most recent icecap melted about 14,000 years ago, the Yellowstone River began excavating old rhyolitic lava flows. With help from wind, rain, and gravity, the river is still carving today.

The canyon's color and texture are also changing. Heat and gases from Yellowstone's volcano flow through the rock, transforming it from buff, pink, and grey to golden and ruddy hues, and softening the rock, making it more carvable.

译文:

青春焕发
黄石河大峡谷在几千年前形成,但地质时代仍属年轻。
大约14000年前黄石最后的冰盖融化后,黄石河开始挖掘古老的流纹岩流层。借助风,雨,和重力,直至今天河水仍然雕凿不止。
峡谷的颜色和质地也在改变。从黄石破火山口逸出的热量和气体流穿岩石,使岩石变成米色,粉色,灰金色和红色,并且软化岩石,使它更carvable。

 黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

 所以有人说:“对于前来观赏的人来说,最引人必胜的既不是峡谷的深度和形状,也不是汹涌奔流的瀑布,最令人难以忘怀的是那光怪陆离、五光十色的风化火山岩。峡壁从头到脚都闪烁着耀眼的光泽,在阳光下炫烂夺目。白、黄、绿、蓝、朱红以及无数种与红色相调而出的颜色。眼前是数百万吨的岩石,—切看上去却像用油彩涂成,仿佛毫无顾忌地暴露在风吹日晒之中,颜色是那样鲜艳,牢固的色彩既不会被冲刷而去,也不会因风吹日晒而褪色。这效果太奇异、太不可思议了。”

黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

 

Shifting Ground

Before the earthquake on June 30, 1975, the observation plattorm extended one hundred feet farther into the canyon. The main tremor and numerous aftershocks measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale shattered a portion of this cliff, tumbling it into the gorge.

Up and down the canyon you can see evidence of other rockfalls. This section of the Yellowstone River overlies a major fracture zone, and the park records thousands of minor tremors annually. Do not assume the scenery will be the same when you return.

译文:

地表变化
1975年6月30日地震前观测平台延伸进峡谷一百英尺远。据测6.1级李氏规模的主震和数次余震粉碎了这个悬崖的一部分,使其翻落峡谷。
峡谷上下还可以看到其他崩塌的迹象。这一段黄石河躺在主断层上,公园每年记录数以千计的微小震动。谁也不保证你下次再来风景依然如旧。

 黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

 Welcome to Inspiration Point

Trail to Inspiration Point Step just below the canyon rim by following the path to the Inspiration Point overlook. Be prepared for more than 50 steps to the viewpoint, and an uphill return.

Alternate Viewpoint

If you prefer, you can view the canyon's radiant colors and glimpse Lower Falls from the walkway beside the parking area.

Stay safe! Do not leave trails or overlooks!

译文

欢迎来到灵感点
通往灵感点台阶的小路在峡谷边缘下边,顺小路到灵感点远眺。到观景台要准备走50步以上的台阶,并且回来是个大上坡。
替代观景台
如果你喜欢,从停车场旁边的人行道也可看到峡谷光色和瞅见下瀑布。
保持安全!不要离开步道或忽视危险!

黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

 The place where I obtained the best...... view of the canyon was a narrow projecting point [Inspiration Point] situated two or three miles below the lower fall. Standing there, or rather lying there for greater safety, I thought how utterly impossile it would be to describe to another the sensations inspired by such a presence. As I took in this scene, I realized my own littleness, my helplessness, my dread exposure to destruction, my inabililty to cope or even comprehend the mighty architecture of nature.

                  Nathaniel P. Langford, 1870

                  The Discovery of Yellowstone Park

译文:

在那里我看到了最好的......大峡谷观测点,一个狭窄的突出点[灵感点],比下瀑布低两三英里。站在那里,或许躺在那里更安全些。源于如此存在的震撼,我觉得怎么也没法描绘出另一种感觉。当我在这个场景中,我认识到了自己的渺小,我的无助,我担心知道的人多了会有破坏,我没有能力应付甚至理解大自然的浩瀚成就。
                                                                纳撒尼尔·朗,1870
                                                                《黄石公园的发现》

黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

 Rhyolite is lightly colored. Volcanic heat and dases soften the rock and transform its color into radiant hues.

流纹岩色彩明朗。火山热量和气体软化岩石并使其色彩明目。

黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁
  Rhyolite Rust

On cool days, puffs of steam waft from vents near the bottom of the canyon. You might also see cinnamon-colored splotches on the canyon walls. The rust spots from when iron in the rhyolite is exposed to moisture and oxygen.

锈色流纹岩
在寒冷的日子,峡谷底部喷口一缕蒸汽飘出。你也许能看到峡谷壁上的肉桂色斑点。这些锈点产生于流纹岩中的铁暴露于水汽和氧气。

黄石瀑布、黄石湖、化石树 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

 * The canyon is about 20 miles (32 km) long.

* Parts of the canyon are nearly 1,200 feet (366m) deep.

* The canyon is forever growing longer, deeper, and wider.

* Water erosion, rather than glaciation, sculpted the canyon.

* Hydrothermal features are found along faults and fractures in the canyon wall.

译文

*峡谷约20英里(32公里)长的。
*峡谷有些地方近1200英尺深(366米)。
*峡谷无休止地长更长,更深,和更宽。
*水的侵蚀,而不是冰川,在雕琢峡谷。
*沿峡谷壁断层和裂缝可以发现水热特征。

黄石瀑布 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁

  A waterfall is a clue that you are standing at a geologic crossroads.
瀑布提示你站在一个地质学的转折点上。

黄石瀑布 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁
  我们在峡谷边上吃午饭,有小动物闻香而来
黄石瀑布 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁
据说,小动物擅长建筑,把自己的家经营的井井有条,卧室、储藏室、育儿室,各有各的出口,决不会让敌人一窝端。    
 黄石瀑布 - 霜晨 - 以博会友,以友辅仁
 
 
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